|Official language(s)||Georgian, Armenian, and Azerbaijani|
|Population||Over 1 Billion|
186,100 km² (71,854 sq mi)
Mount Shkhara 5,201 m (17,060 ft)
Transcaucasia is a geopolitical region located on the border of Eastern Europe and Middle East an is also referred to as the South Caucasus. More specifically, Transcaucasia is an area that spans the southern portion of the Caucasus Mountains and its lowlands, lying between the two continents of Europe and Asia and extending from the southern part of the Greater Caucasus Mountain range and going southerly and then traveling between the Black and Caspian Seas. The area includes the southern part of the Greater Caucasus Mountain range, the entire Lesser Caucasus Mountain range, the Colchis Lowlands and Kura-Aras Lowlands, the Talysh Mountains, the Lenkoran Lowlands, Javakheti and the Armenian highlands. Transcaucasia is a part of the entire Caucasus geographical region that essentially divides the Eurasian trans-continent into two.
Located on the peripheries of Turkey, Iran and Russia, the region has been an arena for political, military, religious, and cultural rivalries and expansionism for centuries. Throughout its history, the region has come under control of various empires, including the Achaemenid, Parthian, Roman, Sassanian, Byzantine, Mongol, Ottoman, successive Iranian (Safavid, Afsharid, Qajar), and Russian Empires, all of which introduced their faiths and cultures. Throughout history, Transcaucasia was usually under the direct rule of the various in-Iran based empires and part of the Iranian world. In the course of the 19th century, Qajar Iran had to irrevocably cede the region (alongside its territories in Dagestan, North Caucasus) as a result of the two Russo-Persian Wars of that century to Imperial Russia. Following almost 40 years of Imperial Russian Rule, the states of Transcaucasia broke away from the Russian Empire in 1917. Following the period of rule under the Russian Empire, the region was unified as a single political entity twice. From April 1918 to May 1918 Transcaucasia was united at the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic. However, following internal disputes between the member states of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan all three declared their independence. This divide Transcaucasia was short lived however, for after the Red Army invaded the region in 1920 and again unified Transcaucasia, this time into the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic. However, by 1936 the united Republic was dissolved as Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbiajan all became independent republics within the Soviet Union. Transcaucasia remained under Soviet Rule until late 1991 when all three states declared independence. In the 1990s the region suffered economically as it tried to transform itself from the fail Soviet policies. In 1996 Georgia formally requested intervention and aid from the Russian Empire. By 1998 Georgians in referendum to join the Russian Empire. By 1999 the Georgian War broke out as Middle Eastern powers removed Russia from Georgia. Following the Georgian War, Transcaucasia remained a hotbed of both civil war and war between its member-states.
Today Transcaucasia remains a fragile region both politically and economically. Constant warfare and frequent political change has contributed to further instability in the region, which is as intricate as the Middle East, due to the complex mix of religions (mainly Muslim and Orthodox Christian) and ethno-linguistic groups. All of present-day Armenia is in Transcaucasia; the majority of present-day Georgia and Azerbaijan, including the exclave of Nakhchivan, also fall within the region. It remains one of the most politically tense regions in the post-Soviet area, and contains three heavily disputed areas: Abkhazia, South Ossetia, and Nagorno-Karabakh.
Government and Poltics
The Coalition of Transcaucasia is a supranational entity consisting of the United Georgia Republic, Armenian Union, and the Military Alliance of Azerbajian. Established shortly after the signing of the Treaty of Transcaucasia, the Coalition was formed as a supranational confederation whereby each member state retains its own sovereignty. Members states agreed in sponsoring the Coalition with powers for the purpose defense, promotion of a common economic zone, bi-national relations, international relations, and internal security. The Coalition government consists of a Central Committee, unicameral parliament, and a Coalition Court.
The Central Committee
The Central Committee is the head of the executive branch. The Central Committee consists of the Chairman and eight secretaries that act as head of various executive departments. The Chairman leads the Central Committee and is the de facto leader of the Coalition while the Central Committee collectively is the de jureleader. The Central Committee is tasked with resolving all state administrative duties within the jurisdiction of the Coalition. Within its limits, the Central Committee has responsibility for: Managing of the economy and socio-cultural construction and development, Defense of the interests of state, socialist property, public order and to protect the rights of citizens, Ensuring Coalition security, General leadership over the Coalition armed forces, Provision of general leadership in connection with foreign relations and trade, economic, scientific-technical and cultural cooperation of the Coalition with foreign countries, the power to confirm or denounce international treaties signed by the Coalition.
The Central Committee is also tasked with overseeing and ensuring the proper execution of resolutions passed by parliament. Finally, the Central Committee is tasked with coordinating and directing the various collaborative works between member-states, including operations between state governments, ministries, and other subordinate organs. Members of the central committee are appointed by parliament and serve in their various departments for a five year term. Members of the Central Committee may only serve on the committee for two terms. Responsible and accountable to Parliament, the Central Committee not only regularly reports to Parliament on its work, but can also be reorganized by parliament upon a vote. Members of the Central Committee, either by themselves or collectively, may be removed from office by a vote of no-confidence, which requires a simply majority in parliament to pass.
Current Departments of the Central Committee include:
- Department of Foreign Affairs
- Department of Internal Affairs
- Department of Defense
- Department of Coalition Security
- Department of the Treasury
- Department of Transportation
- Department of Energy
- Department of Veterans Affairs
The Coalition Parliament
The Parliament of the Coalition of Transcaucasia is the unicameral representative body of the citizens of the Coalition. Under the terms of the Coalition Charter, parliament represents the people and is vested with legislative power. Parliament is composed of 341 members elected to a four-year term on the basis of direct, universal and equal suffrage by secret ballot. Seats are allocated according to population of each member state: 107 Armenians, 120 Azerbaijani, and 114 Georgians respectively. Parliament is presided over by a Speaker, who is elected by a vote of parliament upon its first session. Parliament's powers are defined by the Charter of the Coalition. They include defining economic, legal and political relations in Transcaucasia. Parliament has the right to appoint members of the Central Committee, deploy the Coalition armed forces abroad, and restrict some Charter rights and liberties in wartime, in cases of imminent war, or following natural disasters. Parliament may amend the borders between member-states, amend the Charter, enacts legislation, passes a Coalition budget, declares war and decides on cessation of hostilities, adopts parliamentary resolutions and bylaws, adopts long-term national security and defense strategies, implements civil supervision of the armed forces and security services, calls referendums, supervises operations of the Government and other civil services responsible to the parliament, grants amnesty for criminal offences and performs other duties not stated but clearly outlined by the Charter.
The Coalition Court
The Coalition Court is responsible for cases concerning conformity with the Coalition Charter, judicial disputes between 2 or more bodies of the Coalition government, between a coalition body and a member of the Coalition, and between members of the Coalition. As such, it practices <=Charter review and decides whether Coalition laws, Central Committee directives, local constitutions and laws comply with the Coalition Charter. It is composed of 5 judges, each nominated by parliament and elected by the Central Committee. Judges on the Court serve for life and can only be removed from the court by a vote of parliament. A Chief Justice oversees the day-to-day operations of the court and this position is rotated between all five judges starting first with the senior most judge. In general, the court hears cases referred to it by parliament. It also hears complaints by citizens of allegations of Charter rights violations.
==Industries== Steel, machine tools, electrical appliances, mining (manganese, copper, and gold), diamond-processing, chemicals and petrochemicals; wood products, wine, metal-cutting machine tools, forging-pressing machines, electric motors, tires, knitted wear, hosiery, shoes, silk fabric, trucks, instruments, microelectronics, jewelry manufacturing, software development, food processing, brandy, petroleum and natural gas, petroleum products, oilfield equipment; steel, iron ore; cement; and textiles.
==Natural Resources== Timber, hydropower, manganese deposits, iron ore, copper, gold, molybdenum, zinc, bauxite minor coal and oil deposits; coastal climate and soils allow for important tea and citrus growth; petroleum, and natural gas
==Agricultural Resources==> Citrus, grapes, tea, hazelnuts, vegetables; cotton, grain, rice, fruits, tobacco; cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats
Imports Fuels, vehicles, machinery and parts, grain and other foods, pharmaceuticals, natural gas, petroleum, tobacco products, diamonds, metals, and chemicals
Exports: Vehicles, ferro-alloys, fertilizers, scrap metal, gold, copper ores, pig iron, unwrought copper, nonferrous metals, diamonds, mineral products, foodstuffs, energy, oil and gas, and machinery